Australian immigration to China is minor compared to the movement of Chinese to Australia [topic link page]. While mainland China attracts only two percent of Australian expatriates, Hong Kong is the third most popular destination, and both are increasingly popular. There are approximately 15,000 Australians living, working and studying in mainland China, and around 90,000 in Hong Kong, 7000 in Taiwan, and 1000 in Macau. Surveys indicate that most Australians who move to China as expatriates do so in search of better job prospects. It is estimated that around six percent of Australian expatriates live in China, whereas only one percent of expatriates from other countries move there. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the majority of Australian citizens living in China are Chinese Australians.
People’s Republic of China (PRC)
Australia’s diplomatic network in China is one of its most extensive, reflecting the major bilateral economic [topic link page], education [topic link page], tourism [topic link page] and people-to-people relationships between the two countries. After diplomatic recognition of the PRC in 1972, Australia established an embassy in Beijing in 1973, followed by consulates-general in Shanghai (1984), Hong Kong (1986), Guangzhou (1992) and Chengdu (2013). The latter was opened as a ‘down payment on the Australia in the Asian Century White Paper [topic link page]’ by the Gillard government [topic link page], following protracted calls for an expanded diplomatic footprint in China. DFAT bureaus are supplemented by a network of AusTrade offices, which also cover Dalian, Qingdao, Xi’an, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Wuhan, Ningbo, Chengdu, Kunming, Shenzhen and Macau. Most state governments have representatives in major Chinese cities, and there are over eighty Australia–China sister city or sister state–province relationships.
Hong Kong and Macau
Hong Kong and Macau are both Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of the PRC and fall under the country remit of the Australian Embassy in Beijing, with the Australian Consul-General to Hong Kong also serving as non-resident Consul-General to Macau. Australia and Hong Kong maintain an annual A$4 billion trade relationship and a A$80 billion investment relationship, concentrated in infrastructure, trading, and financial, legal, engineering, IT and retail services. Hong Kong is the seventh-largest foreign investor in Australia and a significant source of migrants, students and tourists — including over 11,000 Hong Kong residents each year who visit on working holiday visas. The government of the Hong Kong SAR operates an Economic and Trade Office in Sydney. Australia and Macau have more ‘modest’ economic ties, dominated by James Packer’s casino ventures and by Australian gaming, hospitality, food and beverage imports. The Australian Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong and Macau is the largest Australian chamber of commerce outside Australia, with over 500 member companies. In October 2014, the chamber was criticised for publishing a statement accusing the Occupy Central democracy movement of being ‘damaging to Hong Kong’s international reputation’. During the same period, Australia’s Fairfax Media revealed that Hong Kong Chief Executive CY Leung had not disclosed A$7 million in payments from the Australian engineering company UGL for agreeing to support its acquisition of a property firm that he was a director of, stirring significant controversy in Hong Kong.
Australia adheres to a ‘One China Policy’ that recognises the PRC as the ‘sole legitimate government of China’. Therefore Australia and the Republic of China government in Taiwan do not have diplomatic relations. However, the interests of both are unofficially represented in the other through the Australian Office in Taipei and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office (TECO) in Australia, and relations are developed on an unofficial basis through contacts such as annual Bilateral Economic Consultations. Although unofficial, the relationship is robust: Taiwan is Australia’s eleventh-largest two-way trading partner (over A$11 billion); Taiwan is Australia’s seventh-largest export market (mainly resources and energy); Australia is Taiwan’s fifteenth-largest export destination (electronics, machinery and refined petroleum); and, almost 30,000 Taiwanese visit Australia each year on working holiday visas. The Abbott government [topic page link] promised before its election in September 2013 to restore annual ministerial-level visits to Taiwan, which have been infrequent since the 1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis. However, an Australian ministerial visit to Taiwan has yet to occur under the Abbott government. There exists ongoing political uncertainty as to whether the US would invoke the ANZUS Treaty to request Australian military support to defend Taiwan if the PRC attempted to gain control of the island by force [topic page link: Defence].
- Australian Embassy in China.
- Australian Consulate-General in Shanghai.
- Australian Consulate-General in Guangzhou.
- Australian Consulate-General in Chengdu.
- Australian Consulate-General in Hong Kong.
- Australian Office in Taipei.
- Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, People’s Republic of China Brief.
- Hong Kong Brief.
- Macau Brief.
- Taiwan Brief.
- Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia in the Asian Century, China Country Strategy.
- Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office in Sydney.
- Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Australia.
- Advance Asia.
- Australia and New Zealand Association of Beijing.
- Australian Association of Hong Kong.
- Australia China Alumni Association.
- Australia-China Youth Association.
- Australia-China Young Professionals Initiative.
- Australia-Taiwan Business Council.
- Australian and New Zealand Chamber of Commerce in Taipei.
- Australian Chamber of Commerce in Beijing.
- Australian Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong & Macau.
- Australian Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai.
- Casa de Macau Australia.
- Hong Kong Australia Business Association.
- Glenda Korporaal, ‘China Lures Best Expats Home…So Should We’, The Australian, 2 February 2008.
- Isabelle Oderberg, ‘Australians Working in China are Terrified’, Crikey, 9 July 2009.
- Philippa Riley, ‘Taiwan Studies in Australia’, East Asian Library Resources Group of Australia, Newsletter No. 55, January 2010.
- Greg Sheridan, ‘Send ministers to Taiwan, senator challenges’, The Australian, 1 April 2010.
- National Bureau of Statistics of China, ‘Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census’, 29 April 2011.
- Australian Foreign Minister, ‘Opening of New Consulate-General in Chengdu’, Media Release, 20 March 2012.
- Rowan Callick, ‘Taiwan puts out the welcome mat to Australians’, The Australian, 16 August 2012.
- Marie-Alice McLean-Dreyfus and Hamza Bendemra, ‘Small but mighty: Why Taiwan matters to Australia’, The Conversation, 15 October 2012.
- Michael Bleby, ‘Aussie Expats Living Large in Asia’, BRW, 28 October 2012.
- Alex Oliver, ‘Rebuilding Australia’s Diplomatic Network…When Circumstances Allow’, The Interpreter, 30 October 2012.
- David Brophy, ‘Australia’s Asia’, The China Story Journal, 31 October 2012.
- Geremie Barmé et al, ‘Australia’s Asian White Paper: Filling in Some Blanks’, The China Story, 15 November 2012.
- Joel Atkinson, ‘Taiwan’s Place in Australia’s Asian Century’, East Asia Forum, 23 November 2012.
- Ken Waller, ‘Opportunities Abound for Australia in Taiwan’, The Conversation, 12 December 2012.
- Xinhua, ‘Expats on Frontline of Australia’s Soft Power Initiative’, China Daily, 26 January 2013.
- Sian Powell, ‘Australians Push into China to Reap the Economic Benefits’, The Sunday Telegraph, 24 March 2013.
- Shea Fan, ‘Understanding Identity is the Key to Succeeding in China’, The Conversation, 1 April 2013.
- Rowan Callick, ‘Hong Kong snubbed on FTA and tax deals’, The Australian, 30 May 2013.
- John Garnaut, ‘China Inside Out’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 June 2013.
- Stephen McDonell, ‘Australian universities luring Hong Kong students’, ABC News, 19 July 2013.
- Australian Consulate-General in Chengdu, ‘Former Minister for Foreign Affairs Senator the Hon. Bob Carr Opens Australian Consulate in Chengdu’, Media Release, 30 July 2013.
- Philip Wen, ‘Fourth Mission in China Opens Trade Launch Pad’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 July 2013.
- Chester Yung, ‘Australia’s Rudd Dials Hong Kong Expats’, The Wall Street Journal, 29 August 2013.
- Liz Tay, ‘Australian Expats are Going to Africa, Vietnam and the Philippines: Here’s What You Need to Know’, Business Insider, 30 August 2013.
- Geoff Raby, ‘Approaching the Bilateral Relationship with China’, Agenda 2013, The Australia-China Story, August 2013.
- Paul Farrelly, ‘The Best Job in the World? Taiwan, Australia and Working Holiday Visas’, Agenda 2013, The Australia-China Story, August 2013.
- AAP, ‘Julie Bishop Plans to Expand Diplomatic Footprint Abroad’, The Australian, 4 October 2013.
- Tim Williams, ‘Adelaide City Council wants a sister city relationship with Qingdao, home of Tsingtao beer’, Adelaide Now, 9 October 2013.
- Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Julie Bishop MP, ‘New Colombo Plan facilitates Hong Kong and Australian student exchange’, Media Release, 19 October 2013.
- HSBC, ‘Aussie Expats Making the Move Back Home or to Asia’, HSBC Global Survey, News Release, 31 October 2013.
- AAP, ‘Aussie Expats Ditch Europe, Head for Asia’, SBS News, 31 October 2013.
- Michael Bailey, ‘China, Thailand, Indonesia among 10 best countries for expats to make more money’, BRW, 31 October 2013.
- Alex Oliver, ‘Bishop’s New Consular Strategy: Show Us the Money’, The Interpreter, 4 December 2013.
- CAN, ‘South Korea-Australia FTA to Impact Taiwan: Official’, Want China Times, 8 December 2013.
- Natalie O’Brien, ‘Australian greyhounds face horrible fate in Macau’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 December 2013.
- Lucinda Schmidt, ‘James Packer Gets Big on Asia’s Casino Sector’, Forbes Asia, 29 January 2014.
- Charles Pym, ‘Australia-Hong Kong FTA not a secondary priority’, Australian Outlook, 24 March 2014.
- Gian De Poloni, ‘Sister-City Relationship Between Regional WA and China “Promoting Cultural, Business Links”’, ABC News, 25 March 2014.
- Alex Oxford, ‘Australian Alex Oxford tells what living in Hong Kong is really like’, News.com.au, 24 April 2014.
- RMIT University, Australian APEC Study Centre, ‘Investing in Taiwan: Exploring opportunities for advancing Australian business interests in China’, Melbourne Policy Dialogue Report, 1 May 2014.
- Cameron England, ‘Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-Shing on South Australian asset buy-up’, Sunday Mail, 18 May 2014.
- Andrew Houghton, ‘Chinese industrial metropolis Qingdao is Adelaide’s first new sister city in more than 30 years’, Adelaide Now, 22 May 2014.
- Lisa Murray and Angus Grigg, ‘Coca-Cola offers expats China pollution hazard pay’, Australian Financial Review, 8 July 2014.
- Rowan Callick, ‘Beijing bids to corral Hong Kong’, The Australian, 10 July 2014.
- Bruce Jacobs, ‘Taiwan-Australia relations: Good links between two democratic Asia-Pacific middle powers’, Australian Outlook, 10 September 2014.
- James Griffiths and Patrick Boehler, ‘China warns foreign diplomats in Hong Kong to ‘stay away’ from Occupy Central’, South China Morning Post, 30 September 2014.
- Lai Ying-kit, ‘British, Australian, Italian and US government tell citizens to take care’, South China Morning Post, 30 September 2014.
- Lisa Murray and Agnes King, ‘Bond traders barbecue for Hong Kong’, Australian Financial Review, 30 September 2014.
- Rowan Callick, ‘Hong Kong’s protests could have far-reaching consequences for China’, The Australian, 1 October 2014.
- Melissa Davey, ‘Hong Kong protests: demonstrations across Australia show support’, The Guardian, 1 October 2014.
- AAP, ‘Australia urges restraint over HK rallies’, The Australian, 2 October 2014.
- Paul Dibb, ‘Mounting tension in Taiwan raises ‘China choice’ stakes for Australia’, The Australian, 3 October 2014.
- Rowan Callick, ‘Chamber of Commerce under fire for criticising Hong Kong protests’, The Australian, 4 October 2014.
- Rowan Callick, ‘Beijing ‘meddling’ in Taiwan’s FTA hopes’, The Australian, 7 October 2014.
- Stephen McDonell, ‘Hong Kong civil servants return to work as pro-democracy protests continue past deadline’, ABC News, 8 October 2014.
- Geoff Raby, ‘Hong Kong uprising a conundrum for Canberra’, Australian Financial Review, 8 October 2014.
- Nick McKenzie, Richard Baker and John Garnaut, ‘Hong Kong chief executive CY Leung faces questions over secret $7m payout from Australian firm’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 October 2014.
- John Garnaut, ‘Hong Kong leader Leung Chun-ying’s hidden dealings will not endear him to protestors’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 October 2014.
- Nick McKenzie, Richard Baker and John Garnaut, ‘Calls for police investigation into $7 million payout to Hong Kong chief C.Y. Leung’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 October 2014
- Su-lin Tan, ‘UGL denies ‘secret fees’ paid to Hong Kong chief executive CY Leung’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 October 2014.
- Jenny Wiggins, ‘TPG to quiz UGL over ‘secret’ Hong Kong payments’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 October 2014.
- James Pomfret and Clare Baldwin, ‘Hong Kong calls off talks with student activists as C.Y. Leung probed’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 October 2014.
- Joyce Ng, James Griffiths and Benjamin Robertson, ‘CY Leung faces separate probes of HK$50 million deal with Australian firm’, South China Morning Post, 10 October 2014.
- John Garnaut, ‘Young people of Taiwan and Hong Kong refusing to accept the unification of ‘Greater China’, The Canberra Times, 11 October 2014.
- Kristian Silva, ‘Meet the men behind the Aquis casino’, The Courier-Mail, 11 October 2014.
- Ambassador Ma Zhaoxu, ‘Beijing promotes a democratic model that works for Hong Kong’, The Australian, 15 October 2014.
- John Warhurst, ‘Australian support for Hong Kong protests runs second to business interests’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 16 October 2014.
- Chris Zappone, ‘Taiwan confirms desire for free trade deal with Australia’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 October 2014.
- HSBC, ‘Aussie expats following lifestyle and money to Asia, HSBC global survey’, Media Release, 31 October 2014.
- Michael Sainsbury, ‘Packer’s fortunes tumble as China doubles down on crooks and high-rollers’, Crikey, 7 November 2014.
- Linda Silmalis, ‘Australian expat’s mystery death during work trip to China leaves widow seeking answers’, The Sunday Telegraph, 30 November 2014.
- Australian Centre on China in the World, ‘Taiwan: The view from the South’, Conference at The Australian National University, Canberra, 6-9 January 2015.
- Melanie La’Broody, ‘One expat happy to call Australia home’, The Age, 26 January 2015.
- Joseph Yeh, ‘Australia holds door open to Taiwan FTA’, The China Post, 4 February 2015.
- Simon Frazer, ‘Crown Entertainment blames Macau troubles for profit slump’, ABC News, 19 February 2015.
- Lisa Murray, ‘Brisbane lawyer at forefront of anti-independence movement in Hong Kong’, Australian Financial Review, 9 April 2015.
- Prashant Mehra, ‘UBS cuts Crown price target as Macau downturn bites’, The Australian, 15 April 2015.
- Emily Stewart ‘James Packer’s Melco Crown Macau joint venture faces structural decline: analysts’, ABC News, 20 April 2015.
- Ben Wilmot, ‘Hong Kong’s Forise planning giant Surfers Paradise tower’, The Australian, 21 April 2015.
- Damon Kitney, ‘Macau casino junket firm links with Packer’s Crown Resorts’, The Australian, 22 April 2015.
- Clifford Lo, ‘Burglar escapes with cash, jewellery from Hong Kong home of Australian consul general’, South China Morning Post, 30 April 2015.
- Lex, ‘Macau’s entertainment value’, Australian Financial Review, 30 April 2015.
- Caro Meldrum-Hanna and Ali Russell, ‘Slaving Away’, Four Corners, 6 May 2015.
- Caro Meldrum-Hanna, Ali Russell and Mario Christodoulo, ‘Australia’s fresh food workforce: How does it operate and who is involved?’, ABC News, 4 May 2015.
- Brad Thompson, ‘WA in Hong Kong push’, The West Australian, 4 May 2015.
- AFP, ‘Australia urged to crack down on abuse of migrant labour’, 7 News, 5 May 2015.
- Phila Siu, ‘Australian government probes claim that foreigners, including some from Hong Kong, are underpaid’, South China Morning Post, 6 May 2015.
- Kristian Silva, ‘Gold Coast Sheraton Mirage to be sold for $160 million to Aquis casino billionaires’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 May 2015.
- Peter Michael, ‘Hong Kong tycoon Tony Fung plans to turn Sheraton Mirage into casino resort’, The Courier-Mail, 6 May 2015.
- Perry Williams, ‘James Packer’s Macau casino bet backed by Crown shareholder Goldman Sachs’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 June 2015.